Tutor Feedback for Part 2.

 

Overall Comments
Thanks for sending the second submission for Drawing Two. This is – again – a long report. The key message in the last report was for you to make much more work. While this submission is better, there is still work to do on this front. You’re making progress in terms of placing your work in relation to that of other artists, but as you note, you need to do more of this. I suppose it boils down to you being bolder and more productive. Try and throw yourself into the kind of experimentation showing in the strawberry images for the whole submission.

A note on your reflection on the last report: I am a little concerned that you have
misunderstood something fundamental. You say that ‘I was pleasantly surprised, the work I have created so far was good’. While I wrote that some of the source material was good or that it’s ‘good that you’ve noticed’ something, I didn’t explicitly state that the work was ‘good’. You’ve written a checklist in the sketchbook, which is much better. In future, put this content on the blog and write notes about how you’ve gone about addressing the issues.

Assignment 2 Assessment potential
I understand your aim is to go for the Fine Art Degree and that you plan to submit your work for assessment at the end of this course. However, from the work you have shown in this assignment, I am concerned that you may struggle to meet the assessment criteria, and recommend that you instead consider either pausing your HE level studies for the time being and taking the personal development route rather than seek assessment (see Conditions of Enrolment, Section 2 a). Contact the OCA Course Advisors to discuss this further. You may well complete and pass Drawing Two, but I am concerned that you will struggle with what is required to pass the degree. There is, however, a lot of work to do. Some of that is related to your technical ability and some of it is more to do with developing a way of working that is fruitful and self-sustaining.

Written feedback on exercises / assignment / parallel project
Demonstration of technical and Visual Skills, Quality of Outcome, Demonstration of
Creativity

Exercise One: There needs to be a lot more work done for you to learn form this way of
working. At the moment you’ve established that it’s difficult and have recognised some of the problems without solving them. Look at the right hand side of the Rembrandt and compare it with your version. In his, the dark side of the face sarges with the gloom that extends to the edge, but you have the gloom stopping short of the edge. As you have noted there are other issues with the proportions. The larger version of the head is better, but still has a sense of a light background. Well done, though, for noting that the texture of the paper matter. Think about his as you proceed. The reclining figure is better in terms of proportion and structure and the forms are rounded, giving the drawing a convincing ‘3D’ effect. Making many more studies images (10-20 for each subject) would help.

Exercise Two: You’ve played around well with the materials and media. I’m pleased you
experimented with different substrates. The underlying drawing is too simplistic, though. Try and keep the rigour of observational drawing – with all the complexity and interest the real world offers – embedded in the work you make. These experiments – which I like – need to be anchored to a more sophisticated foundation. A couple of things to think about:
● Did you think about painting onto the heavily textured surface?
● Cropping these images would give you the chance to compose them more. At the
moment they peter out at the edges.
● Think more about what you use to make the drawings – sticks / feathers / fingers /
etc. Make ,lots of notes about these tools.
● Could you draw with the cotton reels or thread…?
● Imagine you’re Cormelia Parker making work form strange materials. What would
she do?

Exercise Three: Using the golf bag as a ‘portrait’ of your husband – especially when backed with the grid of small houses – is an interesting move in creative terms. What’s missing here is variety. You need to explore the possibilities of the motions more. Investigate the details, and how they are arranged. You’ve decided very quickly of the view you’re going to depict. You could have pushed the image around a lot more. It’s this inquisitiveness that you need to develop to succeed. Use drawing to explore.
Zoom in – trace – overlay – rub – print – explore the way the object is made and make another object – find other drawings of the object and use them as templates

Vintage golf poster

In short, play around with the thing to get to them bottom of it. Look at these masks made with sports equipment by artist Brian Jungen. Could you repurpose stuff in this way? Don’t worry about it being ‘drawing’ or not at this point…

Assignment Two: You’ve explored different ways of representing your subject there are some good discoveries here. The early pieces on the white background are sensitive and
convincing. The blue dots overwhelm the motif a little, but a good experiment. Perhaps a
more translucent blue would evoke the ‘see-through’ quality of bubble wrap more? The ‘final drawing’ is a bit of a step back. The mark-making and energy in the experimental pieces is lost in favour of a kind of smoothness.

In summary, there is potential in the attitude shown in the strawberry piece. More of this
inquisitiveness and more improvisation as you work.

Parallel Project: It is still early days for this. You have collected some photographs, made
drawings from them and written about the two Intimist painters I recommended. You write in your email that you are ‘flailing around’ with this part of the course. I can’t set you a project; that has to come from you.

My suggestion to focus on the domestic was to help you turn a difficulty into a positive. If you want to follow another path, then that’s fine. However, in relation to the work you’ve posted so far, my thoughts are as follows:
● investigate more artists whose work is focussed on home life (search for ‘kitchen sink
painters’, Gwen John, Harold Gilman, Vilhelm Hammershoi, Vermeer). That should
give you lots to look at and follow up, but doing an image searching for domestic
interior artists also yields lots of things to look at. Follow up lots of these leads and
make notes about the work and think about it in relation to your home.
● The photographs all include people. Think about how you might represent them,
aside from simply drawing the photographs. The birthday cake image hints at the
possibility if simply making all the important events in a visual diary. What of you filled
a dirt with a drawing every day of something worth celebrating…?
● You might want to explore the house in detail. documenting corners and cubby-holes,
or details that people might otherwise miss.
● Non-art texts to read that could be of interest:
○ Against Nature, J K Huysmans
○ My House, Primo Levi (a short text to be found in the collection ‘Other
People’s Trades’ (This links memory to space in an interesting unpretentious
way)

● Look at the ongoing project of Lee John Philips who is drawing the contents of his
grandfather’s shed: https://www.leejohnphillips.com/ Could you, for example, draw
EVERYTHING YOU OWN?

Put some ideas together regarding the critical review for the next submission. Try and link it to your parallel project. It needn’t be much: bullet points about what you’re going to address and how you’ll go about it. Think about the critical writing techniques you learned about on UVC. Try and find a good solid text to write about. You can include content about how you have been influenced by your selections and the writing process, but that shouldn’t be the focus.

Sketchbooks
Demonstration of technical and Visual Skills, Demonstration of Creativity
I the sketchbook you have lots of hand-written notes about artists that relate to ‘research
points’. I recommend that you do the following:

● put responses to research points on the blog. That’s where they are most legible. By
all means make notes on paper, but transfer all that material to the blog.
● keep the sketchbook for drawing and visual notes (if an artists if interest, sticking
images in is a good idea so that they interact with your work)
Doing this will allow the sketchbook to be a space in which you can experiment and play. It’s REALLY important that you develop a vibrant sketchbook practice. As mentioned in the last report I recommend you look at the blogs of other students to get a feel for what they do in sketchbooks. Write about this investigation in the log and let their ideas and practices influence you.

Research
Context, reflective thinking, critical thinking, analysis
You have written brief descriptions of the concerns of the artists in research points. You need to dig more deeply than this. The Cornelia Parker is the kind of thing you should be
producing more of. There is some good insight here.
The Vuillard and Bonnard pieces are longer, but focus on biographical material. You’ve
begun to analyse the Bonnard ‘bath’ painting, though. Keep at it. Write a couple of hundred words about each image (colour / shapes / marks / composition / depiction of space / etc). It would help you to make drawings of the works, too. This will for you to work out what’s going on in more depth.
This research into other artists needs to be linked more clearly to what you are doing. Don’t just describe the work of others, but see it as part of a complex network of inter-related practices. This should help you see them in relation to your own work. You’ve begun to do this (Cotton reels / Angela Eames) but it’s not sophisticated enough yet. Push harder and read much more about the artists.

Learning Log and Critical Review
Context, reflective thinking, critical thinking, analysis
You write clearly and the blog is easy to navigate. Well done. The referencing is good.
It’s now time to push harder with the research and how you put evidence of that on the blog. read more complex texts bout artists / art movements / and the subjects that will inform your development.
I recommend dedicating a page to a bibliography for the entire unit. Put anything you’ve
referenced in this and add notes about the texts if you fell that’s useful. You could also
develop a glossary of terms.

Suggested reading/viewing
Context
In addition to he Parallel Project suggestions above…
Though I haven’t read this particular title, it is part of a GREAT series of books about
contemporary art. Each title is themed and contains writing by artists, critics, and so on. You may found copies online second hand. It might well have something that could act as the catalyst for the Critical Review and also inform your PP: https://shop.whitechapelgallery.org/collections/documents-of-contemporary-art/products/the-everyday

Look at the blogs of other Drawing Two students (start with the email I group I instigated) to see how they develop ideas.
Pointers for the next assignment
● Reflect on this feedback in your learning log. Do this in relation to the work and revisit
exercises and blogposts if you feel you can add to them. Revising and revisiting work
is an important way to mine more from them. Often it takes time for all the lessons to
be learned.
● Follow up on the suggestions I have made.
Please inform me of how you would like your feedback for the next assignment:
Written or video/audio. For Level Two and three students I recommend having as
many video tutorials as possible though you’re under no obligation to have any.

Well done, I look forward to your next assignment.

Strengths Areas for development
Material experimentation is improving Keep working at the underlying drawing in technical  terms

 


 

Tutor Feedback part 2.

61330811_757250144670681_685442420703232_n

Response to notes.

  • I have reflected on this feedback in a diary style post.
  • I have changed my poor wording in my reflection for part 1.
  • I have redone exercise 1 by creating another portrait using less light than before and positioning it better on the page.
  • I have made 10 studies regarding my reclining figure before completing my third attempt at Rembrandt’s “Self Portrait”.
  • Have created two further pieces for exercise 2 enlarging the cotton reel and then using the cotton reel and cotton to create them.
  • Created rubbings of golf clubs and gold balls for exercise 3 experimentation.
  • I then created vintage style drawings of golf club heads and pushed it further by combining it with frottage.
  • I have updated my Parallel project ideas with further research ideas and I have made bullet points on where I wish to take my critical review as it stands.(31/05/2019).
  • Completed my Assignment again in a similar way to my first experiments on a white background and I diluted the ink used on the bubble wrap as suggested.
  • I have completed a bibliography and glossary of terms.
  • I have started completing my catalogue regarding my living room if I have time I hope to draw the items in other rooms.
  • I have written up bullet points regarding my critical review.
Advertisements

Reflection Part 2 (including reflection on feedback).

Dear Diary,

I have not long finished part 2 of Drawing 2: Investigating Drawing, after my tutor suggested I push myself further with experimentation and to think less about trying to be perfect I had doubts as to whether I could complete this part to a good standard. However, I really enjoyed this part of the course the exercises made it possible for me to complete the experimentations that had been asked of me although the first exercise was difficult in order to show details, I found it easier to work on a larger scale and take my time. The mark-making exercise made it possible to see how more than one medium works with each other and how the use of different tools created a variety of marks. My favourite one out of my experiments is the oil paint over acrylic paint as the oil paint stayed wet long enough to create some interesting marks.

Admittedly I found it difficult when it came to exercise 3: Narrative as I wanted to do my subject justice, I thought about my children and their first shoes however I had already done some similar in previous work and wanted to try something new. Although my collages aren’t great, I do feel that through experimenting I was able to complete the brief. Completing research on other artists is always an interesting task, to find out about who they are, how they got to where they are with their work and their work itself, especially if the artists are unknown to me at the time. However, I do need to use these artists as inspiration for my own work more than I have done.

My Assignment was the most interesting and enjoyable of all the tasks in part 2, being able to use the subject as an applicator for ink like Cornelia Parker used her subject to create her subject was a completely new experience for me. I started by just dipping my strawberries in the ink to create the shape of strawberries however I pushed myself further thinking about how I could make them look more realistic by adding tone. Cutting the strawberry into pieces helped with this technique and I managed to create a sense of form.

Although I feel I have done ok in Part 2, I am concerned about my personal project which I have been adding to throughout the course so far. I have my theme and subjects in mind of what I want to incorporate into my personal project but I feel I am struggling to convey these ideas and work out what the best mediums are to do so. Hopefully, as I progress through the course, I will be able to add more and more to my parallel project to make it become a decent project.

Moving forward I intend to carry on with my experimentations and push myself further and try not to let my OCD tendencies hold me back

Till next time….

 

Update 20/5/2019

 

Dear diary,

Today I received my feedback from my tutor and I have mixed emotions about it. I feel like I am trying my hardest yet it still isn’t enough, although this course is listed as a part-time course I feel that this is not realistic, the amount of work needed is certainly more accurate to a full-time course.  I was told my experimentation is better than before which is a plus but still not enough for what I need. I need to continue to experiment further and delve deeper into research. My tutor has given me some really helpful suggestions and hopefully, I can do enough so that it will be possible to pass my assessment which I intend to still go for.

 

Till next time….

Part 2 : Review against Assessment Criteria.

Demonstration of technical and visual skills:  Materials, techniques, observational skills, visual awareness, design, and compositional skills.

During part 2 I have experimented with a large variety of materials including charcoal, oil pastels, crayons, acrylic and oil paint, ink, foil, and Strawberries. I have used my observational skills and visual awareness in order to transfer what I see from a physical arrangement and a photographic one on to my support. Over the course of part 2, I have found myself experimenting more than I ever thought I would or could for that matter. I particularly liked completing my assignment, the technique of using the subject matter as an applicator was fascinating. I feel that this makes the final work more my own as I was able to use physical items to create a still life without using a photograph.

Quality of Outcome:  Content, application of knowledge, presentation of work in a coherent manner, with discernment. Conceptualisation of thoughts, communication of ideas.

Throughout part 2 I feel that I have created a larger amount of work than in part 1, meaning that I was able to experiment further and bring my thought process forward. Not only creating a larger amount of single pieces but working in my sketchbook helped. I feel that I have managed to put my ideas across in a coherent manner by doing so.  Although some of my ideas don’t always work I think that this is all part of the learning process.

 

Demonstration of creativity: Imagination, experimentation, invention, development of a personal voice.

I have used my imagination in order to experiment with different media and I have tried to include a sense of personal voice. I pushed myself more to experiment even further than I previously had to incorporate collage into my work. I feel that there is always more that could be done which is part of learning and the creative process that comes with it.  I feel that I can show what inspires and excites me in my work I just need to develop it further in order to develop a sense of personal voice.

Context: Reflection, research, critical thinking.

I have completed research on different artists in part 2 and I have tried to connect it to my own work. I know that I can delve deeper into my research and need to push myself harder to let the artist I have researched inspire me and show this in my work. I have reflected on my own work and have applied critical analysis to it remarking on what I think I did well and what I could improve on.

 

Contextual focus point: Cornelia Parker.

Task.

“Research the work of Cornelia Parker. Make notes in your own words in response to the following questions.”

Artwork by Cornelia Parker, POISON AND ANTIDOTE DRAWING, Made of rattlesnake venom and black ink
Poison and Antidote Drawing (2010) by Cornelia Parker. Image found at: https://www.mutualart.com/Artowrk/POISON-AND-ANTIDOTE-DRAWING/7C4420DCBF408B2A.

Whilst trying to find Poison and Antidote Drawing (2010) I came to the realization that there are quite a few different versions of Poison and Antidote Drawing created throughout the years. Although they are different in shapes, they all have the same colouration and symmetrical appearance as each other. The use of black and white make these drawings quite striking, even though the drawings consist of black and white ink it is possible to see blue and grey tones in the drawings. Their appearance, to me at least, resemble an x-ray of a dissected animal of some kind. Looking at them in the way each drawing has been shaped, they make me think of the inkblots on cards used during psychoanalysis. Although the drawings could be thought of as simple due to a limited palette, the drawings contain intricate details making them quite complex. The different versions of Poison and Antidote Drawing have a dark eerie feeling to them however that being said they also contain a sense of beauty and uniqueness.

What do you think Parker is trying to do in her piece Poison and Antidote Drawing (2010)?

In my opinion, parker is trying to represent the fact that opposites, although quite different such as light and dark can work together as a whole. This makes me think of Yin and Yang, opposing forces that make a whole and if they were to become separated, they just wouldn’t work to their full potential. For example in the drawing you can see that the black ink and the white ink are separate entities that look like they are almost fighting against each other, however, to look at the drawing as a whole if only one element was present the drawing would not be as effective or as aesthetically pleasing as it is with the combined elements.

Poison and Antidote Drawing is created using rattlesnake venom and black ink, anti-venom and white ink. Parker often uses bits of her subject to make her artwork. Why do you think she does this?

“And I think art seemed to be almost like grown‐up play, something that was about freedom of ideas, freedom of expression, and something I could imagine myself doing” [ Cornelia Parker, A Strange Alchemy, 2004]. I feel that Parker has used parts of her subject in her work to really involve herself in the piece she is creating, to have the freedom to express herself (the reason Parker became an artist), and to help her feel connected to her subject and the media she is using. By using parts of the subject and using quite forceful motions such as squashing, burning and shooting Parker is able to truly depict the image and meaning that she wishes to show the viewer and place part of herself into that story.

How do you think it feels to stand in the presence of artworks that are constructed from original objects of great cultural significance? How does that differ from, say, standing in front of a painting of the same object?

I can imagine that standing in front of artworks containing cultural significance compared with a painting of that same object is quite different. For instance, standing in front of the original would make you feel more connected to the actual subject physically and mentally. You can see the true intricacies of the subject rather than a reflection of it and depending on the piece itself it may be possible to walk around the artwork making it possible to see it as a whole and come to your own opinion about the piece. You would also get the opportunity to really think about the subject and its history, the origin and where it has been before it came to be where you are viewing it. Whereas if you were stood in front of a painting of the same object the connection to the subject would become distant with the original not being in the same room as yourself. You would also be viewing the subject from someone else view, restricting your own views and opinions on the subject matter. Sadly, some of the fine details would become lost in translation due to the fact it is a piece of art of a piece of art.

 

 

References.

Article title: Cornelia Parker
Website title: Alan Cristea Gallery
URL: https://www.alancristea.com/artists/25-cornelia-parker/

 

A Strange Alchemy: Cornelia Parker

Author: Tickner, Lisa
Journal: Art history
ISSN: 0141-6790
Date: 01/06/2003
Volume: 26
Issue: 3
Page: 364-391
DOI: 10.1111/j.0141-6790.2003.02603003.x
Article title: Parker Cornelia | POISON AND ANTIDOTE DRAWING (2010) | MutualArt
Website title: Mutualart.com
URL: https://www.mutualart.com/Artwork/POISON-AND-ANTIDOTE-DRAWING/7C4420DCBF408B2A
Year published:

Artist:

2007

Cornelia Parker

Book title:

Page Number:

Drawing now

72

City: London
Publisher: I.B. Tauris

 

Part 2- Project 3: Narrative

(Revisit and things that have been edited are in blue).

Aim.

” Materials and the way they are applied can be very expressive and can imply a narrative without using words. Thickly plastered encaustic or finely dusted chalk- each imparts information about itself and, through association, the subject or your response to it. Take time to experiment with the expressive potential of materials and then make a selection to create a piece where the materials contribute significantly to the way the piece is read”.

 

Method.

” Think of a person whom you have strong feelings or hold a strong opinion. Find an object or item of clothing that reminds you of that person. Make a piece of artwork that uses the object to provide the imagery but uses the materials to give the viewer a sense of the person. In effect, you’re making a portrait of a person as an item of clothing. You could use your daughter’s first shoes, your mother’s hat. Thinking more widely, you use a Bluetooth device and tie to make a piece of work about bankers or an old school tie wrapped around a silver spoon for our political class. Experiment widely and produce as many pieces as you need to until you arrive at something which you think fits”.

 

Experimentations.

Before I started to do any physical work, I had a think about the people in my life that I love. My first thought was to complete this exercise using my daughter’s first shoes however I have used them in previous work and felt I wanted to do something different. I decided as my subject to use my husband, he doesn’t have that many interests apart from gaming and golf, so I felt that the best choice would be his golf clubs and golf bag.

I liked the way the golf bag stood tall an upright plus it doesn’t have a stand to lean on so it would have been a pretty difficult task to do so. I started my work my completing some sketches in my sketchbook to work out what colours to use and where I wanted to take it.

55869364_411990399377475_1457160095749111808_n

55632846_265292331072887_2913777097178611712_n

55922050_405274236716781_4187986803187253248_n.jpg

 

 

 

 

54799370_271715050419543_4689045337275367424_n

56899629_167697860813838_5408462246370082816_n (Watercolour pencils.)

55840530_439590766611352_641305593012813824_n.jpg

 

 

 

 

I started by drawing the colours that I could see but I felt that by doing this it took away the personality of my husband that could be added to it.

 

 

54729424_403938097056771_1044799405191856128_n (1).jpg

54729424_403938097056771_1044799405191856128_n3.jpg

 

I moved on to larger pieces of paper to see the golf bag’s potential. When sketching in my book I really liked the look and feel off using the marker pens. I decided to push this further, experimenting with not only marker pens but also drawing ink, brushes, and a wooden skewer.

I thought back to what my tutor had suggested by completing a drawing, printing it out, making a collage with it and working on it some more. So, with this in mind, I made a drawing of our home, printed it out after I added a filter then went on to create a collage with the house and golf bag.

The next drawing is slightly similar but I felt that the darkness of the filter on the house implied a sense of sadness which is the opposite that I was going for. I used the original colours of the house, creating a collage with it however instead of making the bag into a collage I drew directly on top of the collaged houses. I feel that this looks better than the other as it seems to tell a happier story compared with the other.

55526812_567278110436443_6136975209002958848_n.jpg

The next two drawings contain the grounds on which golf would be played on a nice day. The first was done using drawing ink and brushes for the outline and a wooden skewer for the rest. I used an ink wash for the background. The second drawing was made using a black fine liner and marker pens. I wasn’t completely happy with the background on the second drawing as I felt the lines where slightly distracting from the actual subject so I edited it and incorporated an ink wash, which I think tones the sky down a bit and is less distracting.

55635119_444904159614265_1770721995739103232_n

 

 

55451770_258430468367761_1749294545633280000_n

53472578_321272808578127_4480328193185677312_n

Reflection.

I really enjoyed this exercise even though I thought it was quite daunting at first. I liked the fact that I was able to create someone I love as an object rather than a traditional portrait, this also enabled me to experiment with marker pens and drawing ink. Although I’m not sure how effective the collaged drawings are in telling the story, it was fun to try it out and see the outcome. Overall, I feel that I have managed to complete the task that this exercise asked for.

Edited version.

56958773_602535916881439_7531138472506032128_n.jpg

Further experimentations.

I decided to use frottage to create the drawings below of the head of a different gold clubs using a crayon as my medium. I also went on to use frottage on a golf ball also using a crayon.

61782878_680053149119579_4656572725932851200_n

61538892_434552840712658_9128167949230669824_n.jpg

 

61412966_363033204418484_5137799205582012416_n.jpg

Feeling inspired by the link my tutor sent me (http://thanineemedia.com/2018/10/12/vintage-golf-poster/) I have created further drawings. I traced different golf club heads then spaced them and drew them using black fine liners as I felt this would stay in line with the vintage feel of the posters.

61582581_862033874159023_7648384693070462976_n

 

61438793_520738251795176_3591820169699131392_n

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I decided to combine my frottage with the vintage style golf clubs to create the piece below. Although the clubs aren’t as accurate as I would have liked I feel that you can still tell what they are.

61664894_432855200833108_1877403923900268544_n.jpg

Translation.

I felt it was best to write the translation of my drawings in this part as I felt it best to let the viewer “read” for themselves but I still wanted to explain why I have done my drawings the way I have. I used a black outline due to the fact that my husband is a strong individual who has a hard outer shell (hence the strong placement of the bag as well). I used warm colours because although he can put up a front, he is warm and loving on the inside. I also chose different colours for the clubs to represent each person that he cares about, he is the bag that keeps all of us clubs safe. I created some of the drawings using rough wiggly lines as my husband is quite laid back and to be honest a tiny bit lazy. The other drawing that is more refined is a way of expressing how he appears at work, calm and collected. The collaged house represents the fact that even when he is away from home that his home and family are always in the back of his mind.

 

References.

Article title: Best Golf Club Set For Beginners In 2019 – Our Full Buying Guide
Website title: Bestgolfy.com
URL: https://www.bestgolfy.com/best-golf-club-sets
Article title: Vintage golf poster – Thaninee Media
Website title: Thaninee Media
URL: http://thanineemedia.com/2018/10/12/vintage-golf-poster/

 

Author Sporting Goods
Article title: Vintage Jock Hutchison Wooden Golf Club w/Faux Wood Shaft, Rare | eBay
Website title: eBay
URL: https://www.ebay.com/itm/Vintage-Jock-Hutchison-Wooden-Golf-Club-w-Faux-Wood-Shaft-Rare-/150929604456

Part 2- Project 2: Mark-making materials.

(Revisit and things that have been edited are in blue).

Aim.

” When you think of drawing, what’s the first thing that comes to mind? We might initially think of pencils and maybe a Renaissance masterpiece. In fact pencils are quite a modern invention and most Renaissance drawings were done with a stick of silver and a pot of ink. Your sketchbook should be filling up with drawings in a variety of media by now, but for this project you’ll extend that exploration even further.”

 

Method.

“Build up a variety of surfaces using whatever comes to hand that has two differently coloured layers. Make several drawings by scratching through into the second layer. You can use wax and acrylic paint, oil glazes on board, household paint on wood, varnish on metal. Vary the scale of the drawings depending on your support. Choose a subject from your sketchbook or learning log and push through to make complete drawings, not just squares of texture with random marks. That way you’ll really learn what the materials can do.”

 

My explorations.

I decided for this exercise to go back to my “changing the scale” exercise and experiment further with it.

Number 1.

55460017_2262195387433676_5509723174184419328_n2222

I covered a sheet of A2 in aluminium foil and then applied acrylic paint over the top, I scraped away the paint using clay sculpting tools. In order to get the most out of the acrylic paint, I needed to work quickly before it dried as the foil was very delicate and highly likely to rip. Working quickly meant that the cotton reels aren’t accurate however I don’t think this really matters, I still feel that I have managed to create their form and texture well enough to work out what they are.

 

Number 2.

54210430_815750295458072_63338191951757312_n3333.jpg

For my second piece, I painted my sheet of A2 with acrylic paint splitting it into thirds using black, green and red. I then covered the paint with a fairly thick layer of oil pastel which I then scraped off with a screwdriver. I think that the red contrasts well with the dark grey oil pastel but I feel that I should have used red completely underneath the oil pastel instead of using black and green.

 

Number 3.

54041410_408833173027456_8039890310928531456_n555

This time I chose to try out wax crayons over the top of silver acrylic paint. I then went on to scrape it off using a compass and a clay sculpting tool. The compass was effective in drawing out the cotton reels but not when it came to scrapping off larger areas, this is where the sculpting tool came in handy.

Number 4.

 

54730855_341861256455013_4274139273004843008_n6666.jpg

For the above piece, I used an ink wash and then covered it over with oil pastels. I then used a mixture of clay sculpting tools and my compass to scrape away the oil pastel. I enjoyed experimenting with oil pastels however the downside of using ink to colour the paper beforehand meant that paper became softer and more likely to rip which can be seen in certain areas of my drawing. I feel that I should have added a darker green to the background as the lighter green washes the cotton reels out. If I have time, I will come back to this.

Edited Version.

54728950_703158020100701_8501488656890986496_n7777

 

 

Number 5.

55451743_1833335713438304_4835077231816474624_n8888.jpg

Edited version.

56510925_2427377257548711_4742066304817561600_n999.jpg

For the above piece I painted my sheet with black acrylic paint, then once dry I covered it over in a layer of white oil paint. I used a mixture of palette knives, sculpting tools, the end of a paint tube and my fingers in order to create this. I liked the fact that the oil paint went on thick making it possible to draw into it better than acrylic paint. The downside of it was that it left oily spots on the page and although the drying time is longer than acrylic paint, the oil paint became harder to manipulate as time went on.

 

Number 6.

61603399_605994559906562_1957294687882575872_n.jpg

For this last piece, I painted the sheet in peach acrylic paint waited for it to dry and painted over it in black acrylic paint. While it was wet, I used the wrong end of my paintbrush to scrape into it, I had to work quickly as the black acrylic paint dried extremely quickly. This technique is used a lot in Sgraffito and can be very useful, with artists such as Leonardo Da Vinci applying this technique to his work as well as modern-day artists like Eric Carle who wrote The Very Hungry Caterpillar. I feel that this particular technique would work better with something that takes longer to dry such as oil paints. Although I would consider this a poor outcome, I found it helpful for learning purposes.

 

Reflection.

Before starting this exercise, I felt slightly concerned about what I had to do as I’m not used to drawing in such an experimental way. However, I found this exercise quite enjoyable, getting to use different mediums and different tools to draw into them became very interesting. I enjoyed the oil paint on acrylic paint the most as I felt I could draw into it better and accomplish more, it also helped that it gave me a long time to experiment before drying.

 

References.

Author Michael Clarke
Year published: 2010
Book title:

Page 82:

The Concise Oxford dictionary of art terms

Sgraffito

City: Oxford
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Article title: Learn to Paint With the Other End of the Brush
Website title: ThoughtCo
URL: https://www.thoughtco.com/painting-techniques-sgraffito-2578767

Answers.com. (2019). Are there any famous artists that use sgraffito in their work?. [online] Available at: https://www.answers.com/Q/Are_there_any_famous_artists_that_use_sgraffito_in_their_work [Accessed 9 Apr. 2019].

Further experimentation.

I completed the drawing below by covering a sheet of A2 with foil , I then covered it in black acrylic paint. I scrapped away the paint with a cotton reel and needle.

61275540_2463469930364828_5745618991582281728_n.jpg

Below is my drawing with cotton experiment, I glue pieces of cotton to my sheet of A2. I then covered it in black acrylic paint, when it was fully covered I pulled the strings of cotton off the page. This technique gave interesting results and makes the drawing look like a zoomed in version of a cotton reel. It was incredibly messy and some of the cotton caused the top layer of paper to rip off. I was slightly annoyed at the time however looking at the piece the larger missing areas are what make it interesting.

61597585_417204985527546_8976867134839717888_ncotton.jpg

Oil pastel over green coloured paper.

This drawing was difficult when it came to scraping the oil pastel off due to the softness and vulnerability of the paper, meaning that it torn slightly in places. Although difficult I do like the outcome, the green contrasts nicely with the red and the fragmented appearance makes me feel like I’m looking at the reflection of it on a body of water instead of the original, which is what makes this drawing different to my others.

66043356_2442417782746496_5305250982496567296_n

List of tools used.

  • Clay sculpting tools – These gave a lot of varied lines which made for a more interesting piece.
  • Screwdriver- This helped to scrape away larger portions.
  • A compass- This made it possible to complete finer lines.
  • Palette knives – Helped to spread the paint over the support and scrape away larger portion leaving a fine layer of paint underneath.
  • The end of a paint tube – Made it possible to scrape small and medium portions away.
  • Fingers- Helped to smear and manipulate the medium to where I wanted and to correct “mistakes”.
  • End of a paintbrush- gave interesting marks that had a roundedness to them.
  • Cotton Reel- Part of the subject and scrapped away the paint well when it came to edges.
  • Needle- Made fine lines and related to the subject was also easier to hold than the compass.
  • Cotton- Part of the subject and made for an interesting experimentation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research Point.

 

 

Brief.

“The artists below all make work which both creates and denies three dimensions at the same time. Take a look at the websites then make notes in your learning log about these artists, your response to their work and how their work relates to what you’ve been attempting in this project”.

“Angela Eames: http://www.angelaeames.com/

“Michael Borremans : http://www.zeno-x.com/artists/michael_borremans.htm”

“Jim Shaw: http://www.simonleegallery.com/Artists/Jim_Shaw/Selected_Works”

Angela Eames.

Angela Eames is a British artist who is known for using a combination of drawing and the use of technology, with Eames being one of the first fine artists to do so. Eames uses a mixture of everyday items and natural elements as subject matters such as “Grey Alluvion” [ Angela Eames] with sand being her chosen subject matter, that has been created from a very close view. Other works contain repetitive patterns such as in ” DAISIES_knit” [Angela Eames] where the daisy itself has been repeated over and over as well as the pattern behind it however, the background colour goes from a darker shade of green to a bright shade of yellow adding even more interest to the work.

(The page below reads: WHOLE#3- Giclée print 15″ x15″. Part of the “Void” series. The area surrounding the hole contains texture. This texture plus the use of colour makes it look as if the hole is in the middle of a snowy/icy landscape. The hole itself contains greys that shape the inside of the void. This area also contains a repeated pattern and surrounds an area of darkness. This technique forces the viewer to look down into the void, instead of it being stuck on the surface. PUDDLE#1- Giclée print on Dibond. 20.5″ x 20.5″. Part of the PUDDLE Series. This piece contains blocks of white pattern with strips of black running through them. Each section of pattern is unique in shape and all the lines are wavy and free. Part of the patterned sections have been done in a darker tone to give the impression of a shadow. This drawing has been done in such a way that it gives the impression that there is a puddle behind a gate or fence and that light is coming through it, hence the reason for the repeated pattern and the angle that it has been done at).

53934100_315722819132881_7132866030593900544_n

53525853_275633576694574_4267523064863916032_n

(The page above reads: COPPER- First State- Archival Print. 33″ x 33″. Part of the METAL/WOOD Series. This drawing contains a repeated pattern of circles that are overlapping or touching. The outer circles are thinner and slightly larger than the inner circles  Each of the inner circles contain a  pattern. Although the copper colouration gives the impression of metal this alone wouldn’t be enough. The added highlights are what bring this drawing to life, making the drawing shiny and the appearance of hammered metal. The outer circles finish of this metallic appearance similar to that of chainmail. TOBLER#2- Giclée print. 15″x15″. Framed 19″x19″. Part of the PENROSE Series. This drawing like others contains a repeated pattern. The pattern has been created in a ay that gives it a curved appearance. hill like almost. The red backing starts in dark tones working its way to brighter tones at the bottom. I feel that this also helps to lift and drop the pattern).

My drawings whether in time, space, sound or silence have a single factor in common. They are constructed (i.e. drawn) within the computing environment. They might end up on paper – they might not. They might end up as imagery viewed on video or as printout but they did not at any time and do not now exist in reality. They are simulacra or copies of things that have no original. In the current drawings I am using recorded photographic evidence of human form, close-up photographs of parts of the body, images that are unrecognisable to the uninquisitive eye. Current drawings explore potential and present the visual outcomes of stratagems carried out within the complex and arguably infinite computing environment. They are extensions of my physically orientated visual thoughts and notions.”[ Angela Eames, 1972-74, http://www.baacorsham.co.uk/whosartnow.htm%5D .

I like the way in which Eames sees protentional art in everything and the way she works means that she can explore freely without restriction, which to me is a big part of the artistic process, something which I would like to include more of in my own work.

I attempted to create a drawing of my own combining it with technology. I have taken a cotton reel from my “Changing the scale” exercise, cropped it, rotated it, used different filters and put it into a collage. I would have liked to take it further but I lack the means of technology, I do feel that its current form still makes for an interesting piece.

54211667_404010123726072_1814912227052879872_n

Michael Borremans.

Michael Borremans’ work differs from Eames, his paintings, created using a large amount of effort and initiative, depict the pressure that is put up on us as human beings. Borremans’ work is exceptional on aesthetic level however, this alone isn’t what makes his works interesting but also the meaning that has been created with it. Michael Borremans’ work is quite unusual often containing puzzles that are associated with political and psychological patterns based on how we as humans see the world. Take “The Missile” [Borremans, 2013] for example, this painting depicts how technology affects the world with Borremans’ making comments on his painting, “‘Maybe this is the future of the Catholic Church,”[ Borremans, 2016] and “Building spaceships to look for God!”[Borremans, 2016]. Although some of Borremans’ paintings contain male and female characters Borremans states “I don’t paint portraits.  I don’t want to paint anything visible in front of me or actually existing anymore.” [Reid, 2017].

(The page below reads: Poppy- Made in 2016 using oil on canvas , 240 x 160cm in size. This painting contains a figure (female) in the centre of a room/area. The floor contains lines and texture giving the impression of a stone or wooden floor. The “wall” behind the figure looks like it has been constructed from large wooden panels. The flooring contains light primarily at the front of the figure and also on he left hand side of the female, casting shadow behind the figure and on the right hand side of her. The female is stood with her legs slightly apart and her arms lifted into the air slightly. The subject, appears to be wearing a full body suit including the head. It’s evidently not skin due to the cuff on the wrist, the zip down the torso, as well as the creases and folds in the material. The face being covered gives a sense of mystery. The Egg IV-made in 2012 using oil on canvas, 42 x 36cm in size. The painting depicts a young woman with dark hair, wearing s red top. The female figure appears to be leaning slightly onto the table, with her forearms placed on top of it. Although her legs can’t be seen, the figure has been created in such a way that makes you assume her legs are under the table/work surface. One of her hands are flat against the table, the other is slightly raised from the surface. In the open hand lies a brown egg, the woman is looking down at it as if contemplating what it is or what to do with it. The table and background have been created using earth colours with the brushstrokes being clearly visible). 

54516602_398552427628535_1828475952816979968_n

54521084_559138147898751_808667433312190464_n

(The page above reads: Automat (1) made in 2008 with oil on canvas, 80 x 60cm in size. The painting depicts a female figure with very long dark hair tied in a plait. What makes this painting unusual is that the figure is facing what appears to be a wall with her back to the viewer. Her arms are behind her back, with one hand holding the wrist of the other. The figure ends underneath her bottom with the floor underneath her. This could imply that her legs are laying in front of her or are tucked up in front of her. However, the figure appears to have been placed in the corner of the room leaving little leg space. The figures back is also straight, I would have expected the back to be slightly hunched if the legs were tucked up, also making it an uncomfortable position. It appears that one of her hands has dropped something on the ground. Her upper right arm appears to have a mark of some kind on it. Horse Hunting made in 2005 with oil on canvas 130 x 100cm in size. This painting contains a male subject with dark hair. The subject is wearing a pale grey suit jacket and whit shirt. The background is also a pale grey tone. However, the suit is clearly distinguishable from the background due to the shadow taking place behind the figure. The figure appears to have a vacant expression and is staring at something out of view. The most interesting element of the painting is the fact that the figure has his hands up holding a twig up each nostril. This connects the hands to the nose and gives the nose a longer appearance).

Jim Shaw.

Jim Shaw is an American artist whose work contains a large amount of visual representation. Shaw takes a lot of fragments of American culture using items such as comic books, rock albums and thrift stores as inspiration for his work. With Shaw being well known for this he states ” I feel like I have to avoid certain thrift store-isms, having been known for the thrift store paintings. It’s like I have to try not to paint that way” [ Shaw, 2015, interview magazine]. However, Shaw doesn’t just use American culture in his art but also like a lot of artists, draws on his own life experiences, combining the two of these, are part of what makes Jim Shaw’s work interesting. Shaw also brings in the use of religion, especially in his ongoing series titled “‘Oism” where Shaw has found his inspiration from the history of the messianic cults operating in America’s bible belt. It could be said that Jim Shaw’s style of work has an end of the world feel to it, “Splash page 2″[ Jim Shaw, 2011] is a good example of this. Although Shaw’s work differs from Borremans with the actual message being portrayed, the act of telling a story is what makes them similar to each other.

(The page below reads: Top Hat Tire Man created in 2017 using acrylic on muslin, 72 x 48 inches in size. The painting depicts a figure wearing a tuxedo. The character is sitting on top of a tall building. The figure is also sitting on top of a pile of gold cons. The gold coins are cascading down. forming a new pile at the bottom of the painting. The buildings in the painting look flat, almost looking like cardboard cut-outs. The figure is interesting to look at due to the fact it’s face has been replaced with a tyre, which has a top hat placed on top of it. The tyre itself has a lot of texture giving it a slightly realistic feel. The background contains purple, pinks and yellow tones, giving the appearance that the sun is going down. King Cotton painted in 2015 created using acrylic on muslin, 48 x 48 inches in size. The painting depicts a large figure wearing a crown and sitting in a large box. The box contains a handle with the large figure holding it, it also has reels on the side with gold thread around them. There is a big pile of gold thread next to the large figure, it has been given a shiny appearance by the addition of stars. The gold thread is running a long a spinning wheel which is being used by a small clock work figure. On the other side of the gold thread stands a woman holding a small child. The king himself looks as if he is made of cotton , creating the gold thread from his own body, possibly to give to the woman. In the background there is a line drawing of a door and the impression of a window. The background also contains a lot of flowing patterns. Although the whole background consists of a pattern it has been done in such a way that it separates the walls from the floor).

53900770_327566737896442_2946659173523259392_n53621334_438693073545255_6528363402455154688_n.jpg

(The page above reads: Man with Top Hat painted in 2015 using acrylic on muslin, 36 x 36 inches in size. The painting depicts a male figure down to the waist wearing a tuxedo. Skin is slightly visible between the cuff of the jacket and the edge of the white glove. Blood appears to be spilling out of one gloved hand on to the other gloved hand. The injury looks fairly severe due to the amount of blood that is being shown. The face of the figure appears to be a blur of blacks, greys and white. However it is possible to make out a hint of facial features with a cigarette coming from his mouth. A top hat has been placed on top of the figures head. The background has been created using pinks, purples and yellows. The background has been painted in a way that looks like a piece of fabric, even though there appears to be a window in the background. A lot of Shaw’s work contains top hats. Ripped up face dancer 2 painted in 2010 using oil on canvas. This painting has been painted in a collage style. The painting depicts the face of a female which has been placed in sections. The face itself looks realistic in style. Each section of the face has been created using lots of varying marks with several different colours. The marks on the bottom section of the painting contain a drip effect as if the paint has run down from the marks above).

 

References.

Article title: Angela Eames | Artist | Drawer
Website title: angela-eames-artist
URL: https://www.angelaeames.com/
Article title: Angela Eames | Background
Website title: angela-eames-artist
URL: https://www.angelaeames.com/background
Article title: Angela Eames | Sand
Website title: angela-eames-artist
URL: https://www.angelaeames.com/sand
Article title: Angela Eames | Knit | Purl
Website title: angela-eames-artist
URL: https://www.angelaeames.com/knit-purl
Article title: Who’s doing What in Art – Now: Angela Eames
Website title: Baacorsham.co.uk
URL: http://www.baacorsham.co.uk/whosartnow.htm
Article title: Zeno X Gallery – Michaël Borremans – Selected Works
Website title: Zeno-x.com
URL: http://www.zeno-x.com/artists/MB/michael_borremans.html
Article title: Jim Shaw
Website title: Simon Lee
URL: http://www.simonleegallery.com/Artists/Jim_Shaw/Selected_Works
Article title: Jim Shaw | artnet | Page 2
Website title: Artnet.com
URL: http://www.artnet.com/artists/jim-shaw/2
Article title: Jim Shaw | artnet | Page 3
Website title: Artnet.com
URL: http://www.artnet.com/artists/jim-shaw/3
Author Maggie Gray
Article title: The modern mysteries of Michaël Borremans | Apollo Magazine
Website title: Apollo Magazine
URL: https://www.apollo-magazine.com/the-modern-mysteries-of-michael-borremans/
Author Louise Reid
Article title: The Life And Work Of Michaël Borremans
Website title: Culture Trip
URL: https://theculturetrip.com/europe/belgium/articles/micha-l-borremans-haunted-canvasses/
Author Peter Saul
Article title: The End of Jim Shaw – Interview Magazine
Website title: Interview Magazine
URL: https://www.interviewmagazine.com/art/jim-shaw-the-end-is-here

 

 

Part 2- Project 1: Space, depth and volume.

 

(Revisit and things that have been edited are in blue).

Aim.

“A significant period of western art history was dominated by the attempt to create a believable illusion of space and depth in two dimensions. The idea of the picture frame as a window onto a simulated vista has long been regarded as just one of many possible interesting routes but the relationship between drawings on surfaces and drawings of surfaces is still absolutely vital and many artists make use of that interplay. The description of space, depth, and volume relies on depicting the way in which light operates on objects and the change in tonality that this produces. In the pitch dark, we see nothing. Natural light tends to fall on an object from one side and the sense that we make of the shadows it casts is how we judge three dimensions. The human mind is sophisticated at reading tone, which makes it hard for an inspiring artist to create a convincing visual illusion- the viewer is not easily fooled.”

” The first step for any student is to correct any over-reliance on outline. What we translate as an outline is actually just the moment that something disappears from view- either because something has come in front of it or because its surface has changed direction and slipped from view to reveal what is behind. Either way, being able to sit the two planes next to each other without ringing one of them with a black outline will immediately give a sense of volume and space. An outline pulls us back to the picture plane. This is not a problem in itself but, as it so often used by students, use this project to try not doing it”.

 

Method.

” Cover a whole sheet of paper with charcoal so that you have a blank black rectangle. Make a drawing from a subject of your choice by drawing into the charcoal using a rubber or selection of rubbers. When you’ve worked into the charcoal for about an hour using just a rubber (depending on how fast you work), go back to your charcoal and begin to redraw in darker tones using the side of the charcoal. Continue in this way using the rubber as a white to the charcoal’s black and develop the drawing until you’re happy with it. Try to avoid using outlines – instead, use sweeps of the rubber or the side of the charcoal to build up patches of tone. If you do use an outline, look at the two neighbouring tones, decide which is the darker and then blend the outline into that one. Bear in mind that as you move along the object’s silhouette, the relationships might change and the outline might switch allegiance”.

I admit that in the past I have used outlines in drawing with the mindset of it helping to make the subject more realistic. However, this can have the opposite effect, we put an outline because we feel it’s necessary in order to show where something ends, this then makes the subject become closed off to analysis by the viewer. Which therefore makes it unrealistic. The method of this exercise made me think back to my previous research on Chiaroscuro, the technique of using light and dark to create the impression of a three-dimensional form including the lack of edges. Although the subject lacks sharp edges the human mind is equipped to be able to make sense of it and fills in the missing edges.

Self Portrait by Rembrandt painted in 1629. Image found at: https://karansart.wordpress.com/2012/06/25/chiaroscuro/

Above is ” Self Portrait”[ Rembrandt, 1629] which is a good example of chiaroscuro, on one side, the face is bright and detailed, however, the other side is in darkness with the eye and part of the cheek being slightly lit up. Although the right side of the face is in darkness you can still “see” the edge of the face.

53083477_399414977515489_8960331759858221056_n.jpg

I attempted my own version on A3 by covering my sheet in willow charcoal, I blended it in with my finger in order to get a stronger basis. Using a different thickness of erasers, I drew out the portrait, removing large portions and then darkening the shadows with more charcoal, trying to make sure that no sharp edges take place. I found this technique interesting to use but also frustrating. Not being able to draw it out as I usually would, meant that I struggled with proportion. Unfortunately, my portrait doesn’t look like Rembrandt but I do feel that the drawing contains chiaroscuro when it comes to the right side of the face.

22197442_10213755852067919_1345594141_o

For my second drawing, I used the above photo of myself as my subject. I decided to leave the facial features out, admittedly I’m not sure if this is down to the fact that facial features aren’t something, I am particularly good at or because I liked the added mystery to the drawing. This drawing contains Chiaroscuro but on an extremely minimal level. Between the chest and arm is darkness, however, a line can be “seen”.

53453734_583690952113393_1624427150415233024_n

 

2nd Attempt.

I felt that I should try out my first subject again but this time on a larger scale as I think that the A3 paper made it more difficult to get the correct proportions and detail.

Like before I covered my A2 sheet in willow charcoal erasing certain areas as I went. I found that the charcoal effect was slightly different from my other drawings as my A2 paper is smooth compared to the grainy texture of my A3 paper. I think that this gave the background a better tone.

53280735_257594205161468_739455487036096512_n

3rd Attempt.

After having feedback from my tutor, I decided to try Self Portrait by Rembrandt (1629) again. The outcome is better than my previous attempts, the position on the paper is more accurate to the original and more aesthetically pleasing than my previous attempts. This drawing also contains more tone and is more accurate when it comes to proportions that my other drawings. I completed this after my additional studies which I feel has contributed towards a better result. Comparing this drawing to Rembrandt’s Self Portrait (1629) the positioning on the page is similar as is where the light falls, however, there are some obvious differences not only the use of a different medium but the facial features are more defined and realistic with a much better overall sense of quality.

 

60765001_1068102630051013_5967378078744182784_n.jpg

 

Reflection.

Overall, I feel that I have been able to achieve a sense of depth and tone with my drawings and that chiaroscuro is present, especially in my last drawing. If I were to edit my last attempt or redo it, I would try to move the subject slightly higher up the page and try to create more tone in the face like my first as this one is a bit flat. Even though this technique was very frustrating I did enjoy the learning experience.

 

References.

The National Gallery, London. 2019. Chiaroscuro | Glossary | National Gallery, London. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/glossary/chiaroscuro. [Accessed 08 March 2019].

Additional work.

I decided to do further charcoal studies in line with the reclining figure drawing that I had completed previously. I did a lot of smearing, rubbing and erasing to complete these, this study really helped towards the outcome of my third attempt.

60837414_2236789276381783_7323633402547011584_n.jpg

 

60891906_473000196774350_2007031083480121344_n

60637708_436019887193525_3773548405020688384_n.jpg

 

60928614_443000109808694_5092121803187290112_n.jpg

 

60711746_2411845672393355_3484235606916071424_n.jpg

61086831_467662690638378_5292168507817984000_n.jpg

60613194_388043375386572_8333553799234846720_n   60985470_296416337933867_4215865526099902464_n.jpg60717141_398906457626040_8253797179966095360_n

60711596_395454954389384_5605517209926369280_n.jpg